No one is more excited about Batgirl’s new costume than Kara.
A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)
(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.
I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool. But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.
Bread Fraud was a huge thing, Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead. So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.
Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.
OMG IT’S HAPPENING LETTERED PREVIEW OF STORM #1 GET ON THIS Y’ALL
The long-time X-Men gets her first solo ongoing series next week Check out this Newsarama-exclusive preview.
GREG PAK (W)
VICTOR IBANEZ (A/C)
Variant Cover by SIMONE BIANCHI
Variant Cover by SKOTTIE YOUNG
BLANK VARIANT ALSO AVAILABLE
Thief. Goddess. Headmistress. Queen. The X-Man called STORM has always defied a single title. And her desire to better the world has never been limited to only her own kind. On a mission to foster goodwill and safeguard the mutant race’s continued existence in her own way, Storm will travel the globe, confronting man and mutant, god and monster and everything inbetween. She will overthrow tyrants, quell tsunamis and strive to see her dream for the world realized. She is STORM, a hero like no other….and the skies will tremble at the sight of their namesake.
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99
this is from spy kids
i really like looking at google image searches for “firemen rescuing cats” or something because you get super cute pictures like
AND THEN THERE’S THIS ONE
"THAT’S RIGHT TWAS I that set the house ablaze!!!”
i hate when i’m too comfortable around someone because then my brain thinks its ok to act weird but even then i end up being too weird
IM SO HAPPY
OK BUT SEE, I DIDN’T KNOW.
I didn’t KNOW. Chris Evans swears like a sailor. Chris Evans has an adorable Bostonish accent. Chris Evans wants you to know that he can tap dance. Chris Evans thinks that Captain America is the least ass-kicking of all of the Avengers. Chris Evans loves to tell the story where he made an idiot of himself in front of Ben Affleck. Chris Evans is REALLY EXCITED TO DO THIS INTERVIEW. Chris Evans REALLY wants to talk to you and tell you what’s on his mind.
Chris Evans is STUPIDLY CHARMING. And no seriously, he swears LIKE A SAILOR. People who swear with alacrity are my fucking kryptonite.
I just DID. NOT. KNOW. I have literally never seen him outside of movies and photos before.
do you think coming of age movie is like, still haunting him?
OMG, he *is* a meat ball!